This paper analyzes the cause and impact of expatriate migration from Manikganj district, Bangladesh. The expatriate migrates due to economic, social, political, or environmental causes. Among them, lack of services, lack of safety and security, high crime and lack of law and order, crop cultivation failure, drought, flooding, river erosion, cyclones, poverty, etc lead them to migrate abroad. Economic push factors in the case of Manikganj, Bangladesh can include overpopulation and the lack of employment and economic earning opportunity. Around 34.8 percent believe that poverty at the family level is the push factor for leaving Bangladesh and only 2.5 percent migrate due to low scope of income in Bangladesh which is the cause for expatriate migration. A better life abroad is the most positive impact of expatriate migration, ( 95.8 percent) and only 1.2 percent believe better communication is the pull factor for expatriate migration from Bangladesh. From the field survey for the research work, lack of a good visa is a main barrier for expatriate migration from Bangladesh which is 92.50 percent. Around 3.20 percent of respondents say that lack of dependable good agency or media is another barrier to migration and 2.2 percent believes that financial problem is the notable barrier to migration. The cause and effects of expatriate migration are the result of push and pull factors. Unemployment is a vivid matter that works as a push factor for the expatriates from Manikganj district, Bangladesh.
Keywords: Migration, Expatriate, Remittance, Cause of Expatriate Migration, Pull and Push Factors, The Positive and Negative Impact of International Migration.
The cause and impact of expatriate migration is a very common phenomenon to all the concerns of migration and remittance researchers. In Bangladesh, most of the remittance recipients family members, and stakeholders agree that there are some causes for migration which include the push and pull factors. The push factors mainly help to migrate abroad due to some lack and drawbacks in Manikganj as well as in Bangladesh and the pull factors attack them to go abroad for better opportunities. In order to bring more clearer idea of the pull and push factors for expatriate migration, this chapter discusses on the positive and negative impacts of expatriate migration. The fundamental question is, therefore, not whether migration has either positive or negative developmental impacts, but why migration has contributed to development in some communities and much less, or even negatively, in others (Taylor, 1999). Hence, it is necessary to understand the cause and impact of expatriate migration as well as the changes over time. The causes of migration may differ from time to time in the spatial context. Not only the spatio-temporal aspect of migration but also the migrant group may pose the difference of the cause of migration. If we consider the short and long-term migration, we may get different causes of migration also. Benjamin Zeitlin in 2006 says,
“There are usually many interrelated reasons for migration, the result of a combination of personal, familial, regional, national and international factors. These may be very different migrants from different backgrounds or different regions”. The cause of expatriate migration may be divided into main two considerations which are push and pull factors. In very general idea,
i) push factors that push them out of homes to migrate crossing the boundary of the country;
ii) the pull factors are which pull or attack the migrant to migrate abroad crossing the boundary of the country”.
2. THE AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
the major objective of the study is to find out the cause and impact of expatriate migration from the Manikganj district of Bangladesh. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:-
- to find out the push factors for international migration,
- to find out the pull factors for international migration,
- to find out the positive impact of international migration,
- to find out the negative Impact of expatriate migration.
- to find out the barriers of expatriate migration from Manikganj district and Bangladesh.
the study involves on both the primary and secondary data sources which has been analyzed through the quantitative statistical data analysis method. In this study, the existing secondary data have been collected, collated, and scrutinized and necessary primary data also have been collected from the field of study area, Manikganj district of Bangladesh.
THE STUDY AREA: Manikganj district is one of the sub-divisions of the former Dhaka district. It was upgraded to a district in 1984. There are 7 upazilas, 2 municipalities, 18 wards, 65 unions, and 1660 villages in the district (BBS, 2013). It was named Manikganj after the name of saint Manik Shah Darbesh. The Padma, Jamuna, Dhaleshwari, Ichamati, and Kaliganga are the main rivers in the district. Manikganj District has an area of 1383.66 square kilometers with a population of 13,92,867; among them sex ratio is 94%, the population density is 1007 per square kilometer, the literacy rate is 49.20%, Among the peasants, the landless 23%, the marginal peasant 29%, small peasant 25%, intermediate 18% and 5% rich (BBS, 2013).
Figure 1. The sketch Map of Manikganj district, The study area.
SAMPLING FRAME WORK: The expatriate’s sample size and frame will be developed on Guilford and Fruchter’s Sample Size Theory as, n z2pq/d2, where, n = sample size, z = 1.96 at a 5% level of significance, p= 0.50 when the exact value of difference is unknown, q =1.00-0.50= 0.50 and d= 5%= 0.05, So, n= ( 1.962*0.50*0.50)/ 52, =384.16 or 384, for missing content and coverage the error, the study needs additional 16 sample to cover up the research gaps. So, the total sample size would be 384+16= 400 (Four Hundred).
The statistical data analysis through SPSS AND MS-EXCEL software and various statistical methods have been used to get the more scientific and justified results of the study. Quantitative techniques that are relevant and necessary for the study have been applied to examine the relationship between and among the variables and parameters with respect to the study.
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
4.1: Push Factors for International Migration: Inequality is a common phenomenon in the universe, and this is not an exception in the case of expatriate migration cause. People may migrate for many different reasons which may be economic, social, political, or environmental causes. All these causes push the expatriate to migrate from home to abroad is known to us push factors. Depending on the push factors we may consider the following migration:-
- economic migration: when an expatriate migrates or moves to find work or employment on a particular career pathway or direction,
- social migration: when an expatriate migrates or moves for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends,
- political migration: when an expatriate migrates or moves to escape political persecution or war,
- environmental migration: when an expatriate migrates or moves due to natural disasters such as flooding, river erosion, drought cyclone, etc.
There are many expatriates who selects to migrate, and others who move to another country to get career opportunities. Some others are forced to migrate.
Push factors for migration are the reasons for which expatriates cross their country boundary an area. They include: lack of services, lack of safety and security, high crime and lack of law and order, crop cultivation failure, drought, flooding, river erosion, cyclone, poverty etc. Economic push factors in the case of Manikganj, Bangladesh can include overpopulation and the absence of employment and economic opportunity. Social and physical reasons tend to involve forced migration; such a social push factor would be intolerance towards a certain ethnic or cultural group. As the fleeing of Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany in the 1930s. A physical push factor is very common for the study area and almost all over Bangladesh except the Chittagong Hill Tracts is flood and river bank erosion. These are very frequent natural disasters in the country. Such as the floods of 1988, 1996, and 1998 in Bangladesh. Besides unemployment and poverty is a prominent push factor of expatriate migration in Bangladesh. The following table shows the field survey report:-
Table 1: Push Factors for Leaving Bangladesh.
|Serial No||Push Factors||Frequency||Percent||Valid Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|1||Poverty At Family||139||34.8||34.8||34.8|
|3||Low Income Scope||10||2.5||2.5||100.0|
Source: Field Survey, 2013.
Figure 1: Pie Diagram for push factors.
The above data and diagram show that 251 respondent out of 400 agree that less income scope in Bangladesh is the main cause of migrating abroad which is 62.8 percent. Around 34.8 percent believe that poverty at the family level is the push factor for leaving Bangladesh and only 2.5 percent say their low scope of income in Bangladesh is the cause for expatriate migration.
4.2: PULL Factors for International Migration: Pull factors are the reasons why people move to a particular area. The dominant motive for migration is economic, and pull factors tend to be provided employment opportunities, and higher wages. In the cases of Economic motivation large industries needs important skilled and unskilled labor and technician with regard to migration. Better economic opportunities, job facilities, and the promise of a better lifestyle often pull people towards migrating to a new country. From Bangladesh, young people move to London and Gulf countries to work as drivers, kitchen helpers, cooks, cleaners, construction laborers, and sometimes with their families. For higher and better education some student also moves abroad which is called a brain drain but is not a brain drain is brain and economic gain which is a remarkable pull factor. Sometimes there are social pull factors in migration, for example, the principles of religious tolerance in the Gulf countries for Bangladeshi which attracted a religious atmosphere of work.
The other pull factors are higher employment, more access to wealth, better services, good weather, safer public life, less crime, political stability, more fertile land, and better law and order situations, lower risk from natural hazards.
|Serial No||Pull Factors||Frequency||Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|1||Better Law And Order||12||3.0||3.0|
|2||Good Road Network||5||1.2||4.2|
|4||Improved Life Style||72||18.0||100.0|
Source: Field Survey, 2013.
Figure 2: Pie Diagram for Pull Factors.
The field survey and data analysis reveal that the pull factors for expatriate migration are as follows: – better law and order (3.00 percent), good road network (1.20 percent), more income scope (77.8 percent), and improved lifestyle (18.00 percent).
From the above result, we may conclude that income scope is the prime factor for expatriate migration.
4.3: Positive Impact OF INTERNATIONAL Migration: The positive impact of expatriate migration has a long history of concern with the economic impacts on sending countries like Bangladesh. Economic models in the 1960s assumed perfectly competitive markets in the world economic arena. In the case of economic overseas employment, source governments lose both their initial educational investment, as well as their downstream taxes (Bhagwati and Hamada, 1976). But, thus initial losses become an investment for the expatriate sending countries which is an important avenue of impact in its own right. The expatriate migrants create economic support and ability to talk regularly with family members, or potential business partners, which has a further unmeasured but evident impact on the formation of consumer and social values. They also become able to purchase and consume foodstuffs, household items, cosmetics, etc.
Kapur and McHale (2004) differentiate between a Diaspora’s direct and indirect effects, the latter having to do with expatriates’ role as intermediaries between the sending and receiving countries. Indirect impacts through the intermediary role are played out when expatriates are leaders in creating a demand for goods and services or by creating a tangible reputational basis for transactions. Businessmen in the receiving country may have little knowledge about either the existing products or the characteristics of workers in sending countries.
The expatriates also decrease the risk for non-nationals by enforcing transactions by the balance of payment of a country like import-oriented Bangladesh.
The expatriate’s remittances create national differences in the quality of education which leads to skilled emigration from Bangladesh, which is a major positive impact. Somehow in contrast, a theoretical variant of this line of thought hypothesizes that there is an optimal level of emigration that induces increasing accumulation of human capital (Beine et al., 1999; Mountford, 1997). Because workers can expect higher earnings when they are permitted to seek employment abroad, they are motivated to pursue education for the younger members of the family. As long as not all of these persons emigrate, which is highly unlikely, there is an increasing level of education or human capital available to developing countries. From the field survey for the research work, the following table shows the positive impact of expatriate migration from Manikganj, Bangladesh:-
Table 3: The Positive Impact Or Good Sides Of Expatriate Migration.
|Serial No||The Positive Impacts||Frequency||Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|2||Better Law And Order Situation||12||3.0||98.8|
Source: Field Survey, 2013.
Figure 3: Pie Diagram of Positive Impact at Abroad.
Better life is the most positive impact of expatriate migration which is 95.8 percent of the total opinion during the field survey. On the other hand, only 1.2 percent believe that better communication is the pull factor for expatriate migration from Bangladesh. The rest 3.00 percent of respondent believes that better law and order attracts them to migrate abroad.
4.4: the Negative IMPACT OF Expatriate MIGRATION: expatriate migration from any area not only poses good results but also carries out some bad impacts which are the negative impact of expatriate migration. During the survey, many people opined that they are facing many problems, like lack of social security, loneliness, leadership, etc. When a male family member migrates, the rest of the family members are in distress and social hazards. The total workload of a family become a burden for female or older members, even it also creates some problem. When a female member migrates abroad, the younger children feel loneliness and the absence of motherly care and support. As a result, the loss of males or females, however, is also a negative impact of expatriate migration. In the case of household work, female members’ migration is a problem, on the other hand, in household work, male migration is a problem also. A good number of expatriates suffer from ill health conditions and hygiene during their migration from Bangladesh for better work abroad. They are in poor health facilities due to a lack of medical facilities and standard living conditions. Besides, in the case of expatriate migration, extra-marital relations with the migrants or their family members or spouses left at home is another problem. The survey result finds the following problems:-
“Illegal interference of middlemen or Dalal is the worst side or most noted negative impact of expatriate migration which is 70.50 percent of the total opinion. 18.00 percent opine that a bad visa hurts expatriate migration from Bangladesh. 11.50 percent of respondents say that more time for visa processing is one of the notable negative impacts of expatriate migration”.
Table 4: The Negative Or Bad Sides At Abroad Or Destination
|Serial No||The Negative Sides At Abroad||Frequency||Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|2||Illegal Interference Of Middle Men Or Dalal||282||70.5||88.5|
|3||Need More Time For Visa Processing||46||11.5||100.0|
Source: Field Survey, 2013.
Figure 4: The Pie Diagram of the Negative Impact of Expatriate Migration.
Besides, a loss of welfare if externalities lead to a loss of scarce skills is a major consideration of the negative impact of international migration which is absent in the present study. If the highly skilled expatriate emigrant is greater than their necessary skilled manpower, then the country faces a loss which is a barrier to proper development and also a problem of existence.
4.5: The Barriers OF EXPATRIATES MIGRATION: The flow of expatriate migrants between two countries may not totally confirm and show intervening obstacles but practically it exists between the countries. The number of expatriates is directly proportional to the number of opportunities in a given country and inversely proportional to the number of intervening obstacles. We may consider the intervening obstacles as intervening opportunities; that is, the actual scenarios of the origin and destination countries to which an expatriate may migrate. Therefore, the volume of migration from one place to another is associated not only with the distance between places and the number of people in the two places but also with the number of opportunities or obstacles between each place. This is especially true for expatriate migration from Bangladesh.
The following figure summarizes Lee’s (1966) push-pull theory in graphic form. It shows possible migration between a place of origin country and a place of destination country with the positive and negative signs signifying pull and push factors, consequently.
Figure 2. Lee’s Push-Pull Theory
Source: Based on Lee (1966).
Flows take place between two places, but there are intervening obstacles to these spatiotemporal movements. Although these obstacles are represented by “mountain” shapes, keep in mind that the obstacles need not only be limited to physical barriers but also social and economic barriers in Manikganj, Bangladesh. Restrictive immigration laws, financial crises, family dilemmas, social norms and attitudes, culture, etc may be a barrier for prospective migrants. We may note that both the origin and destination have pushes and pulls, reflecting the reality that any migrant must consider both the positives of staying and the negatives of moving, as well as their conversations. The logic of the push-pull theory is that if the plusses (pulls) at the destination outweigh the plusses of staying at the origin, as shown below, expatriate migration is likely to occur.
From the field survey for the research work, the following table shows the barriers to expatriate migration from Manikganj, Bangladesh,
“lack of good visa is a main barrier for expatriate migration from Bangladesh which is 92.50 percent. Around 3.20 percent of respondents say that lack of dependable agency or media is another barrier to migration. 2.2 percent believes that financial problem is the notable barrier to migration”.
Table 5: The Problems For Expatriate Migration.
|Serial No||Problems||Frequency||Percent||Cumulative Percent|
|01||Lack Of Good Visa||370||92.5||97.8|
|02||Lack Of Dependable Agency Or Media||13||3.2||5.2|
Source: Field Survey, 2013 AD.
Figure 5: The Pie Diagram of Problems For Expatriate Migration.
5.0: CONCLUSION: Migration usually happens as a result of a combination of these push and pull factors. There are many economic, social, and physical reasons why people emigrate, and they can usually be classified into push and pull factors. Push factors are those associated with the area of origin, while pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination.
The dominant motive for migration is economic, and pull factors tend to be higher wages and greater demand for labor perhaps found in centers of industry and commerce. Economic push factors can include overpopulation and the absence of economic opportunity. Social and physical reasons tend to involve expatriate migration, and an example of a social push factor would be undesired towards a certain cultural group. Very simply we may conclude that the resulting force of pull and push factor decides any type of movement of a human being.
Concerning the above discussion, we may say a little about the cause and effects of international or expatriate migration as the result of push and pull factors related to the issue. Unemployment is a vivid matter that works as a push factor for the expatriates from Manikganj district, Bangladesh.
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